Expert Author Anish Kumar Pillai

Let us assume that you have been asked to create some test scripts in QTP. As an automation engineer, what would be the tasks you want to complete as part of this exercise? The most important task is that the test case should do the intended work. Other than that wouldn't you want that your code is easy to understand, can be re-used, needs little maintenance and can be expanded? All these are the things which if you have, makes your life much easier. And how do you achieve all these things? Well, this can be done by using a good Test Automation Framework.

What does QTP Framework Mean?

QTP Framework, or in general a Test Automation Framework, are some guidelines which you can follow during scripting to achieve the above mentioned 'desired' results. These set of guidelines can be anything such as -

- coding standards like the variables names should begin with the type of variable (eg. boolVar, flFlag), function names should start with fn (eg. fnCalculateSum).
- format of your data sheets, how your workbooks and the individual sheets in them are grouped.
- what folder structure is required to be followed to store the test scripts, reusable libraries, object repositories, test run results.
- how should run results be saved and displayed.
- how all team members should access that shared repositories, libraries and how they should update these.
- and many more..

Following these guidelines would lead to the task being done in a consistent manner which would ultimately result in a framework which will provide you with all the benefits that you have aimed for.

Please note that these are just a set of guidelines and not rules which are mandatory. Even if you don't follow these guidelines, you would be able to achieve your most important task i.e. running the scripts to see if the application is working fine or not. The only thing is that you might end up spending a lot of effort scripting (if there is no code re-use) and maintenance would turn out to be a rather tough job.

Salient Features of a Test Automation Framework

Following are the features that should be available in a good automation framework.

a) The framework should be created in such a way that it helps achieve maximum possible re-use.
b) The test scripts should be easy to understand and maintain.
c) The framework should be designed in such a way that all different components such as test cases, function libraries, object repositories, data sheets, configuration files and test results are stored in separate folders. This would help the end users get hold of the framework easily.
d) Data parameterization should be done to keep the code separate from data, so that the same code can be re-used for different sets of data.
e) Test Results should make sense and should be easy to understand. You can also provide high level and detailed test results separately.
f) Proper error handling techniques should be used. You can also providing screenshots of the failed test cases.
g) When test cases are run in batch mode, failure of 1 test script shouldn't affect the execution of the remaining test scripts in the batch.
h) You can also write QTP AOM code in VBScript which can act as the starting point for the execution of test cases.
i) The framework may also include email (and if required SMS) functionality so that the test execution results are automatically mailed/sms'ed to the stakeholders.

Other than these features, you can also include various other features based on your requirements.

Frameworks used in QTP

Following are the different types of QTP Frameworks that you can use while creating test scripts.

1) Linear Framework in QTP - This is the most basic framework where you write your script as is. That is, with this approach you write all the steps one after the other in a linear manner.

2) QTP Functional Decomposition Framework - With this framework, you write the entire code into different functions and then you call these functions wherever required. These functions can be both reusable and non-reusable.

3) QTP Data Driven Framework - In this approach, your data is kept separate from the code, preferable in excel sheets. This helps you execute the same code for multiple sets of data.

4) Keyword Driven Framework in QTP - In this type of QTP Framework, you can create different keywords and associate different actions with these keywords. When QTP encounters a particular framework, it will execute the action associated with that framework.

5) QTP Hybrid Framework - Hybrid framework is a combination of one or more frameworks discussed above. Based upon your needs, you can combine the features of any of the above frameworks. The resultant framework would be a Hybrid framework.

6) BPT Framework in QTP - In this QTP Framework, you can divide your test case flow into multiple Business Components. You can then re-use these components as many times as required. You need Quality Center access in order to use BPT Framework. Also you need to acquire BPT license from HP in order to use this framework.


Expert Author Eric B Hartman

10. Dogs pay attention.

If you are sitting and watching television, the moment you decide to leave the room to make a sandwich a dog will know. He must then decide to A, take the chair with all the warmth you just left for himself, OR B, follow you to the kitchen to see if you will drop a slice of ham on the floor by accident.

9. Dogs need to know if you are asleep.

Invariably if a dog jumps into bed he must check to see if you are sleeping by touching his wet nose against yours. Once the coldness has startled you awake you are now required to pet him until he is satisfied.

8. Dogs must smell everything.

The smell of everything has a powerful message for dogs. They are able to determine who has been where with whom with a sniff. The whom might be your dear friend who comes to visit and finds a nose in places that polite people don't go near.

7. Dogs think cats are toys.

All dogs think cats are for their entertainment. Until the cat has had enough and shows the dog what he has hidden under those paws. Dogs don't understand why toys scratch and hurt so this becomes a new game of lets play with the sharp pointy toy. This is only fun until the dog has had enough and runs whimpering to his hiding spot.

6. Dogs know how to find a good place to lie to keep you near.

Dogs will lie in the first place where you are going to place your feet when you attempt to stand up. Their next job is to see if they can get you to trip, then fall, then force you to go to the doctors so you will somehow have to stay home and pay more attention to them. How they have planned this process out is a mystery but they constantly try to trip me to get this to happen.

5. Dogs know when someone is at the door.

Dogs have incredible hearing to help them determine when you are not paying attention to a person at the front door. This is not because they are protecting the home. They are simply trying to get at a new person to smell and determine who is seeing whom.

4. Dogs are opportunists.

Dogs find the open doors, dropped food, hands hanging over the sides of chairs, and any other chance they can to get attention, food, or play time. Invariably this happens at the worst possible moment for you but the joy is all theirs. You now have to share your meal, pet them or play catch me if you can.

3. Dogs don't understand.

No matter how much you try to explain language or teach the dog what you are saying it will not understand. It is also difficult for the dog to understand why you never learn to speak Dog. Especially when they have tried every device they know to tell you to come open the door so they can roam or put a leash on them and take them out.

2. Dogs are hypnotists.

Dogs wag their tails to attempt to hypnotize you into paying attention to them for all the waking moments of the day. They try to jump in front of you, to look you in the eyes and keep you in a hypnotic state by wagging the tail for you to see. Sometimes it works sometimes it doesn't but they are always willing to give it another try.

1. Dogs are trying to train us.

It seems we never learn, but they keep trying.

By Eric Hartman

A quirky look at the way dogs act and how we learn from their behavior.


Expert Author Shelly Pitcher

We've been operating a certain way for a long time now - in our world, in our banks, our corporations, in our governments, every way we can think of - and it seems that what used to work just doesn't work any more. The old structures seem to be falling and crumbling, and people are standing up more and more for freedom every day.

Our world is changing very rapidly, and one consequence is that many of us are in turmoil over relationships that are starting to struggle or are in deep trouble, after working for a long time.

It's because we haven't upgraded our relationship skills to what this changing world of ours actually needs. What we're experiencing is an opportunity to upgrade to a new way of thinking and being, and an invitation to get rid of our old rubbish - the negative, controlling, fearful part of ourselves that has been our second nature for as long as we can remember - so that we don't repeat the mistakes of the past that got us all into this mess in the first place.

This is what the world needs, and it's what our relationships now need as well:

* Authenticity, Honesty & Transparency
* Freedom from Manipulation
* Rebellion against Dictatorship
* A Return to Kindness and Fairness
* An End to War
* Waking up to Injustice
* An End to the Nanny State

If your relationship is in any kind of trouble, it will be in response to one or more of the above in your relationship, and it will be coming from you.

Do you want to learn the new relationship skills to heal your marriage or build an incredible one that endures? Start where you are. Observe how you speak to your partner. Look out for your attempts to control him. Watch how you treat him. Be kinder. Be nicer.

Be willing to be vulnerable, to him and with yourself. Be honest with yourself, but be kind to yourself too. Is there anything of the above in your marriage? Would the man you love feel controlled or owned in any way? Is he tired of the same arguments and the same patterns? Does he ever feel he's in trouble with you and might be punished by a cold shoulder, the silent treatment, refusal of sex or affection, or just outright public humiliation by an embarrassing tantrum? Do you manipulate him, either through the unconscious 'womanly wiles' of tears, pouting and whining, or through sneaky attempts to get your own way on something you want?

That's the old way, and it just doesn't work any more. It's time for us to grow up and leave all the tricks behind.

Building a marriage that lasts isn't for the faint of heart. It's not for children or children in woman's bodies who refuse to grow up and be grown ups in a grown up relationship.


Expert Author Rich Frasier

SEO, or search engine optimization, is a byproduct of the widespread popularity of the Web. It, like most online marketing services, started as an experiment by avant garde companies that used the Web to differentiate themselves as a competitor. Before the dotcom bubble burst, the preface "e" and the suffix ".com" were buzzwords in the marketing community, and it seemed that anybody was willing to call their business an online business.

Today, though, it's no longer enough to merely be online. It's now vital to the survival of your business to be discoverable online, and this is where a reliable SEO services company can help by increasing your visibility.

How do you know you need a SEO company? How do you know that your site isn't doing perfectly fine without the help of an outside party? Here are three ways to know:

You Don't Own Your Domain

Is your website in something of the format "" or similar? This means that you don't own your domain. Rather, you are renting a subdomain from another company. Usually, this means that your website and its hosting are completely free. And, unfortunately, you aren't too likely to rank well in Google if that's the case. If you have this problem, your website needs a lot of other SEO help on top of the task of migrating your site to its own domain.

Your Site Employs Keyword Stuffing, Masking or Other Search Trickery

When the Web was new, maybe you did hire a SEO consultant to get your site ranked. He probably employed tricks which are now absolutely guaranteeing that you do not rank on the first page of the site. What was once able to get by search engine algorithms has now been found and almost completely purged from the algorithm, and offenders are now punished in the search engine results pages (SERPs). If your site has any elements which are designed to trick search engines into sending irrelevant traffic, you need a new, reliable SEO services company to bring your business into modernity.


Expert Author Nataliya Nencheva Nenova

How to achieve our desirable body weight? Thousands people all over the world are asking themselves every single day. But the answer is not very simple.

Everybody knows that to be skinny is important to follow the next rules: enough physical activity like fitness and jogging, severe feeding regime with proven foods and no stress. Nowadays this is not so easy. Therefore the first little step which we can make is to take proper diet pills.

The choice of the proper diet supplements has to be very careful. There are thousands pills offering at the market. Their manufacturers and merchants claim that these pills show significant slimming effect and there is no healthy risk.

What we have to know before we make our choice:

1) By their origin the diet pills are divided to: chemically synthesized and natural diet supplements, derived from natural products. The chemically synthesized supplements carry a significant risk. When an unknown chemical substance is introducing to the human organism mainly two effects are occurring:

a) Entire upset of our digestive system. The organism does not have the proper enzyme complex to destroy this substance.
b) Entire mobilization of our immune system, which has to attack and capture the unknown substance.

Both effects are extremely unfavorable and they causing health problems.

Some natural diet pills also can include harmful ingredients: hormone-like substances and elevated content of caffeine.

The most effective and risk-free natural diet supplements are discovered after exploring different areas of the world. Investigating different groups of people in closed societies with primitive lifestyle, the scientists noticed that the whole tribe looked skinny but healthy. In this way are invented the slimming effects of plants prickly pear, acai berry, cayenne pepper, garcinia and others.

2) The next question when we are choosing proper pills is how reliable the manufacturer is. The qualitative pills are medically baked - produced under the requirements of the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).

3) The good natural diet supplements have to be clinically proven. It means that the contents of all ingredients are known - no hidden compounds and no side effects.

4) How fast we wish to get skinny? Our desire is right now. Unfortunately it is not the right answer. The process of slimming has to be not very fast - not more than 2-3 lbs weekly. When the slimming is faster, yo-yo effect is very possible. The slower slimming process is the reliable slimming process. Also when the slimming is fast the skin is hanging down which may be irrevocable especially for people over 45 years old.


Expert Author June Brewer

"The ultimate goal of all goals is to be happy. If you want to be happy make someone else happy."

--Deepak Chopra

"Happiness is a byproduct of living generously."

--Stephen Post, director of the Center for Medical Humanities, Compassionate Care and Bioethics at Stony Brook University in New York

For many equine enthusiasts, volunteering is a regular part of their routine, a natural part of life, whatever their age. What's in it for them? They discover giving is its own reward and in the process volunteers also learn new skills, make new friends, and otherwise help themselves while they're helping others.

Giving back extends far beyond the good feeling you get. When you volunteer, you give your time, your energy, your skills, and enthusiasm. Contributions to family and friends, to neighbors and to the riding community, bring you a sense of self-fulfillment and the knowledge that you've made a difference.

Volunteering is also a way of saying thank you and of recognizing the countless others who, in small and big ways, have made life richer and better through their efforts.

While it entails sacrifice of time, serving also yields unexpected and heartwarming rewards. You've got nothing to lose and everything to gain. As a volunteer, you also reap personal benefits and enhance your personal growth. As a regular horse event volunteer, you enjoy the thanks and sometimes gifts from the organizers, but what keeps me coming back is the unsolicited gratitude from the participants and the personal growth that comes with it. Hearing "thank you for being here" makes the 5:00 AM alarm and hour-long drive fade into the past.

Volunteering gives your mind, soul, heart, and body a jump-start to a happier and healthier being and offers a purpose that satisfies your soul. It's said to lower your stress level, heighten your immune system, and help you sleep better at night (except maybe those nights before a 7:00 AM start time at a horse show!). In addition, giving back brings physiological benefits, as volunteers enjoy what's known as "helper's high." Medical research shows that helping others releases endorphins, which reduces stress and sensitivity to pain, contributes to overall well-being, and even helps people live longer.

Local equine volunteer opportunities are available everywhere. Don't be afraid to volunteer in a discipline other than your own. Contact GMOs, saddle clubs, equine rescues, equine-assisted therapists, and show managers to see what they need. There's a volunteer job made for you, if you look! Remember, volunteers do something for the love of it--and get as much out of it as they put into it, and often a whole lot more. Don't forget to thank them as you ride by at your next horse event!

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